The Good Indian and the Little Eichmanns

Professor Ward Churchill was fired from his position at the University of Colorado, Boulder after he called the bond traders killed during the 9/11 attack on the Twin Towers in New York “LIttle Eichmanns”.

Churchill’s termination raises serious issues about the myth of freedom in America, particularly academic freedom and free speech.

The following link begins a  satire in eight parts by Francis Beer and Joseph Juhasz, with artistic collaboration by Marie-Juliette Beer, about the firing.


Meanings of the Right to Bear Arms

Recurrent public massacres have stimulated new calls for gun control. While the easy availability of weapons alone does not cause such mass killings, they are certainly an ingredient of the recipe for wholesale mechanical murder.

In spite of such urgent considerations, gun control efforts have run up against the prohibitions of the Second Amendment to the US Constitution. As ratified by the States in 1791, it says that a” well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed”.

The Supreme Court’s interpretation of the Second Amendment has severely restricted contemporary attempts at gun control. The Court’s rulings rely heavily on a portion of the Second Amendment text–“the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed”. On its face, the Court believes, this fragment is the central, invariable meaning of the Second Amendment and justifies prohibiting most gun control.

Yet this sentence fragment does not exist in splendid isolation. Its meaning is moderated by semantic and historical context. Semantically, it is only a part of the Second Amendment text. The preceding reference to “a well regulated militia” is an anterior meaning shifter. It is not irrelevant and can not be ignored. It is an integral part of the text. It sets the tone for what comes next and affects its interpetation. Presumably, the reference to a well regulated militia, particularly after militia contributions to American victory in the Revolutionary War, was intended to modulate the meaning of the right to keep and bear arms. The semantic environment of the complete Second Amendment text thus suggests framing and limitation of  the right to bear arms–that the arms did and should  have some connection with a well regulated militia. Presumably arms that existed well outside that context–for example in the hands of terrorists, premeditating murderers, or the criminally insane–would not be covered.

The historical environment also helps shape the meaning of the right to bear arms. A concise summary occurs in . Without going into the full range of complexities, it may be sufficient to note that there is no evidence of original intent to establish an unlimited right: that anybody associated with the passage of the Second Amendment intended to protect the right of deranged shooters to gun down innocent men, women, and children in public places.

The historical context also shapes the meaning of the central noun, the subject of the Second Amendment, the word “arms”. A strict construction of “arms” would have to take account of the arms in the context of the time, single shot muzzle loaders for example.

The Battle of Yorktown

external image revolutionary%20war%20pic.jpg“Google Images.” Google Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2012. <>.

From this originalist perspective, The Second Amendment could not refer to weapons that were absent at the time of its ratification–semi-automatic or assault weapons, improvised explosive devices, shoulder-launched missiles, atomic, biological, or chemical weapons, for example. These did not exist either on the ground or in the minds of the framers. They could not, therefore, have been denoted or protected by the word “arms” in the Second Amendment. The referent of “arms”  in “the right to keep and bear arms”could only be the set of weapons that existed when the Second Amendment was adopted.

The meaning of the Second Amendment lies not in an absolute reliance on an isolated fragment of its text, but in a wider context. The meaning is modified by the semantic context of the Amendment itself. The full black letter text implies that the right to bear arms should have some relevance to the place of those arms in a system of well regulated militias.

The Second Amendment’s meaning is further modified by its placement in the context of military technology of the late 18th century. It could not refer to modern weapons simply because they didn’t exist. The Second Amendment does not, therefore, deal with many 21st century weapons, nor does it limit our efforts to control  them.